Posts tagged as Transphobia

Factors Impacting Transgender Patients’ Discomfort with Their Family Physicians

A Respondent-Driven Sampling Survey

Representing approximately 0.5% of the population, transgender (trans) persons in Canada depend on family physicians for both general and transition-related care. However, physicians receive little to no training on this patient population, and trans patients are often profoundly uncomfortable and may avoid health care. This study examined factors associated with patient discomfort discussing trans health issues with a family physician in Ontario, Canada.
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Intervenable Factors Associated with Suicide Risk in Transgender Persons

A Respondent Driven Sampling Study in Ontario, Canada

Across Europe, Canada, and the United States, 22–43 % of transgender (trans) people report a history of suicide attempts. We aimed to identify intervenable factors (related to social inclusion, transphobia, or sex/gender transition) associated with reduced risk of past-year suicide ideation or attempt, and to quantify the potential population health impact.
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Intersecting Impacts of Transphobia and Racism on HIV Risk among Trans Persons of Colour in Ontario, Canada

Minority stress theory suggests enhanced HIV risk for those experiencing social marginalization, while an intersectionality framework posits that forms of marginalization may interact. The purpose of this paper is to understand how race/ethnicity- and gender-based discrimination may impact HIV risk among transgender or transsexual (trans) people.

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Reported Emergency Department Avoidance, Use, and Experiences of Transgender Persons in Ontario, Canada

Results From a Respondent-Driven Sampling Survey

Transgender, transsexual, or transitioned (trans) people have reported avoiding medical care because of negative experiences or fear of such experiences. The extent of trans-specific negative emergency department (ED) experiences, and of ED avoidance, has not been documented.

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Suicidality among Trans People in Ontario/ La suicidabilité parmi les personnes trans en Ontario

Implications for social work and social justice

Abstract: While transgender and transsexual (trans) communities have been documented to experience high rates of suicidality, little attention has been paid to how this may vary based on experiences of social injustice. Using survey data from the Trans PULSE Project (n=433), we estimated that suicidal thoughts were experienced by 36% of trans Ontarians over the past year, and that 10% attempted suicide during that time. Moreover, we documented that youth and those experiencing transphobia and lack of support are at heightened risk. Suicidality varied greatly by medical transition status, with those who were planning to transition sex, but who had not yet begun, being most vulnerable. Recommendations are made for improving wellbeing in trans communities, through policy advocacy, service provision, access to transition care, and fostering accepting families and communities.

Résumé: Bien qu’on ait déjà établi que les membres des communautés transgenre et transsexuels (trans) connaissaient des taux de suicidabilité élevés, on n’a que très peu porté attention jusqu’ici à la façon dont ces taux pouvaient varier en fonction d’expériences d’injustice sociale. Read more

Joint Effort

Prison Experiences of Trans PULSE Participants and Recommendations for Change

Trans Ontarians experience high rates of unemployment, workplace discrimination, and poverty which can make them more vulnerable to incarceration. Approximately one-quarter of trans people in Ontario report being harassed by police because they are trans, while about a quarter of racialized, and a third of Aboriginal, trans people report police harassment because of their race or ethnicity. The limited research conducted on the prison experiences of trans people in Canada suggests that trans people who live in poverty, who are sex workers, and who use drugs frequently report police harassment, and may constitute the majority of trans people who are arrested and imprisoned. We also know that Aboriginal and Black people are over-represented in Canadian prisons.

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Experiences of Transphobia among Trans Ontarians

Transphobia has been described as an “irrational fear of, aversion to, or discrimination against people whose gendered identities, appearances, or behaviours deviate from societal norms”. This includes transgender, transsexual, transitioned, transgender, and gender-queer people, as well as some two-spirit people. Transphobia exists within a context of cisnormativity, the expectation that all people are- and should be- cisgender, or non-trans. Transphobia includes acts of exclusion, discrimination, and violence, as well as attitudes that trans people may themselves internalize. Here we present information about the types and levels of transphobia experienced by trans people in Ontario.

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Prevalence of and Risk and Protective Factors for Depression in Female-to-Male Transgender Ontarians

Trans PULSE Project

Although depression is understudied in transgender and transsexual communities, high prevalences have been reported. This paper presents original research from the Trans PULSE Project, an Ontario-wide, community-based initiative that surveyed 433 participants using respondent-driven sampling. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the prevalence of, and risk and protective factors for, depression among female-to-male (FTM) Ontarians (n=207). We estimate that 66.4% of FTMs have symptomatology consistent with depression. In multivariable analyses, sexual satisfaction was a strong protective factor. Conversely, experiencing transphobia and being at the stage of planning but not having begun a medical transition (hormones and/or surgery) adversely affected mental health in FTMs.

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Depression in Male-to-Female Transgender Ontarians

Results from the Trans PULSE Project

High prevalences of depression have been reported in male-to-female (MTF) transgender communities. We explored factors associated with depressive symptomatology among MTF spectrum trans people in Ontario, using data from the Trans PULSE Project Phase II respondent-driven sampling survey (n=433 participants, including 191 MTFs with data needed for this analysis). We estimated the prevalence of depression at 61.2%. Factors associated with higher odds of depressive symptomatology included living outside of Toronto, having some college or university (vs. completed), being unemployed, and experiencing higher levels of transphobia. Increasing social support was associated with reduced odds of depressive symptomatology. Multivariable analyses suggested complex relationships between these factors, passing, and childhood abuse, which require additional study.

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We’ve Got Work to Do

Workplace Discrimination and Employment Challenges for Trans People in Ontario

A key to good health and quality of life is being fully included as a valued member of society, having access to a safe employment setting free of harassment and which provides meaning on a daily basis, and being able to rely on a secure income from one’s employment. There is a considerable negative impact when these social determinants of health are absent, compromised, or threatened. Recent results from the U.S. have documented high levels of discrimination and harassment in employment settings, but until now similar data have not been available in a Canadian context. While some non-explicit employment protections are in place for trans people in Canadian law, employment discrimination still exists. Trans PULSE findings showed that while 71% of trans people have at least some college or university education, about half make $15,000 per year or less. In light of this we sought to better understand the unique barriers to employment faced by trans Ontarians, and the discrimination they experience in the workplace.

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Ontario’s Trans Communities and Suicide

Transphobia is Bad for our Health

Recently, the news has been filled with reports of anti-gay bullying and high suicide rates among lesbian, gay and bisexual youth. Unfortunately, there has been little discussion about the situation for trans people regarding suicide. Just-released data from a large U.S. study found that 41% of trans participants had ever attempted suicide in their lifetime, but they did not include information on who might be currently at risk. Trans PULSE has taken a unique snapshot of trans people across Ontario, Canada- people with a range of identities, relationships with their bodies, and personal beliefs about the necessity of physical  transition. The information on suicide we present here was collected using a unique research method that allowed us to take the most statistically accurate picture of trans people possible in Ontario. We caution that this information is alarming. This situation demands immediate action on the part of our community, policy-makers, service providers and educators. It also underscores the need for parents and families come together to support trans people in Ontario.

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“I Don’t Think This Is Theoretical; This Is Our Lives”

How Erasure Impacts Health Care for Transgender People

For people who are transgender, transsexual, or transitioned (trans), access to primary, emergency, and transition-related health care is often problematic. Results from Phase I of the Trans PULSE Project, a community-based research project in Ontario, Canada, are presented. Based on qualitative data from focus groups with 85 trans community members, a theoretical framework describing how erasure functions to impact experiences interacting with the health care system was developed. Two key sites of erasure were identified: informational erasure and institutional erasure. How these processes work in a mutually reinforcing manner to erase trans individuals and communities and produce a system in which a trans patient or client is seen as an anomaly is shown. Thus, the impetus often falls on trans individuals to attempt to remedy systematic deficiencies. The concept of cisnormativity is introduced to aid in explaining the pervasiveness of trans erasure. Strategies for change are identified.

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