Evidence suggests that transgender (trans) individuals in Canada are a medically underserved population; barriers range from lack of provider knowledge on trans issues to refusal of care. This paper provides the first formal estimation of health care inequalities between trans and cisgender individuals in Ontario, Canada.
Posts tagged as FTM
This study is among the first to examine factors associated with HIV-related sexual risk among transgender men and other transmasculine persons who are gay, bisexual, or have sex with men (T-GBMSM).
Representing approximately 0.5% of the population, transgender (trans) persons in Canada depend on family physicians for both general and transition-related care. However, physicians receive little to no training on this patient population, and trans patients are often profoundly uncomfortable and may avoid health care. This study examined factors associated with patient discomfort discussing trans health issues with a family physician in Ontario, Canada.
Limited research regarding transsexual or transgender (trans) parents has often focused on their children. This analysis represents the ﬁrst published proﬁle of trans parents (N = 110) from a large probability-based sample of trans people (N = 433). Read more
Despite health inequities experienced by Aboriginal and transgender (trans) communities, little research has explored the well-being of Aboriginal trans (gender-diverse) people. This paper aims to describe barriers to well-being in a sample of Aboriginal gender-diverse people in Ontario, Canada.
Recent estimates suggest that as many as 1 in 200 adults may be trans (transgender, transsexual, or transitioned). Knowledge about dimensions of sex and gender in trans populations is crucial to development of inclusive policy, practice, and research, but limited data have been available, particularly from probability samples.
Transgender, transsexual, or transitioned (trans) people have reported avoiding medical care because of negative experiences or fear of such experiences. The extent of trans-specific negative emergency department (ED) experiences, and of ED avoidance, has not been documented.
The Trans PULSE Project has produced a new report focused on perceived need for, and access to, Pap tests and mammograms for trans Ontarians. Read more
The objective of this report is to provide requested information on perceived need for, and access to, Pap tests and mammograms for trans (transgender, transsexual and transitioned) people in Ontario, using data from the Trans PULSE Project.
Among FTM trans people who had not had hysterectomies, 56.2% reported perceived need for a Pap test in the past year, of whom 83.1% were able to access one. In other words, an estimated 46.7% of FTMs who had not undergone hysterectomies had accessed a Pap test in the past year. Ten FTMs who had not had chest surgery (mastectomy) reported perceived need for a mammogram in the past year, of whom 7 were able to access one. Among MTF trans people who were on estrogen, 12 of 16 participants who perceived need for a mammogram were able to access one. Read more
Abstract: While transgender and transsexual (trans) communities have been documented to experience high rates of suicidality, little attention has been paid to how this may vary based on experiences of social injustice. Using survey data from the Trans PULSE Project (n=433), we estimated that suicidal thoughts were experienced by 36% of trans Ontarians over the past year, and that 10% attempted suicide during that time. Moreover, we documented that youth and those experiencing transphobia and lack of support are at heightened risk. Suicidality varied greatly by medical transition status, with those who were planning to transition sex, but who had not yet begun, being most vulnerable. Recommendations are made for improving wellbeing in trans communities, through policy advocacy, service provision, access to transition care, and fostering accepting families and communities.
Résumé: Bien qu’on ait déjà établi que les membres des communautés transgenre et transsexuels (trans) connaissaient des taux de suicidabilité élevés, on n’a que très peu porté attention jusqu’ici à la façon dont ces taux pouvaient varier en fonction d’expériences d’injustice sociale. Read more
Objectives. We examined the extent of nonprescribed hormone use and self-performed surgeries among transgender or transsexual (trans) people in Ontario, Canada.
Methods. We present original survey research from the Trans PULSE Project. A total of 433 participants were recruited from 2009 to 2010 through respondent-driven sampling. We used a case series design to characterize those currently taking nonprescribed hormones and participants who had ever self-performed sex-reassignment surgeries.
Results. An estimated 43.0% (95% confidence interval = 34.9, 51.5) of trans Ontarians were currently using hormones; of these, a quarter had ever obtained hormones from nonmedical sources (e.g., friend or relative, street or strangers, Internet pharmacy, herbals or supplements). Fourteen participants (6.4%; 95% confidence interval = 0.8, 9.0) reported currently taking nonprescribed hormones. Five indicated having performed or attempted surgical procedures on themselves (orchiectomy or mastectomy). Read more
Transphobia has been described as an “irrational fear of, aversion to, or discrimination against people whose gendered identities, appearances, or behaviours deviate from societal norms”. This includes transgender, transsexual, transitioned, transgender, and gender-queer people, as well as some two-spirit people. Transphobia exists within a context of cisnormativity, the expectation that all people are- and should be- cisgender, or non-trans. Transphobia includes acts of exclusion, discrimination, and violence, as well as attitudes that trans people may themselves internalize. Here we present information about the types and levels of transphobia experienced by trans people in Ontario.
The Trans PULSE project has produced a new report focused on social gender transition and the status of sex designations on goverment-issued identity documents for trans Ontarians.
The objective of this report is to provide requested information on social gender transition and the status of sex designations on government-issued identity documents for trans (transgender, transsexual and transitioned) people, using data from the Trans PULSE Project.
An estimated 48.0% of trans people who had socially transitioned to live full-time as men or women had no government-issued identification that reflected their lived gender. While a full discussion of the implications is beyond the scope of this report, this does represent a special situation in that the complete absence of identification matching one’s lived gender creates barriers to everyday activities of life.
Trans Health Advocacy Summit Plenary. Features updated results as of August 2012.
The Trans PULSE team is pleased to share the publication of three new journal articles so far this year.
Background Studies of HIV-related risk in trans (transgender, transsexual, or transitioned) people have most often involved urban convenience samples of those on the male-to-female (MTF) spectrum. Studies have detected high prevalences of HIV-related risk behaviours, self-reported HIV, and HIV seropositivity.
Methods The Trans PULSE Project conducted a multi-mode survey using respondent-driven sampling to recruit 433 trans people in Ontario, Canada. Weighted estimates were calculated for HIV-related risk behaviours, HIV testing and self-reported HIV, including subgroup estimates for gender spectrum and ethno-racial groups.
Results Trans people in Ontario report a wide range of sexual behaviours with a full range of partner types. Read more
Although depression is understudied in transgender and transsexual communities, high prevalences have been reported. This paper presents original research from the Trans PULSE Project, an Ontario-wide, community-based initiative that surveyed 433 participants using respondent-driven sampling. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the prevalence of, and risk and protective factors for, depression among female-to-male (FTM) Ontarians (n=207). We estimate that 66.4% of FTMs have symptomatology consistent with depression. In multivariable analyses, sexual satisfaction was a strong protective factor. Conversely, experiencing transphobia and being at the stage of planning but not having begun a medical transition (hormones and/or surgery) adversely affected mental health in FTMs.
Presentation available in PDF form.
About two-thirds of trans guys are GB-MSM, and are attracted to or sexually involved with cis or trans men. Trans guys already exist within gay men’s communities, gay bathhouses, and gay men’s bedrooms. Yet, their sexual health concerns are rarely made visible.
Our results show wide diversity among GB-MSM trans guys with regard to relationship types, sexual activities, psycho-social factors, and HIV-related risk. Thus, no assumptions can safely be made about how an “average” GB-MSM trans guy may act, what he may do in bed (or not do in bed), or what other psycho-social stressors he may or may not have to deal with.
Sexual health and HIV-related prevention and testing programs and materials need to incorporate trans guys’ issues and needs, and to reflect the potential for gay or queer bodies to be trans bodies.
Gender-related terms represent concepts that are important in how people self-identify and are rooted in social, institutional, and medical histories. Sex and gender have historically been binary—male and female—and these terms have been applied to appearance, identities, and anatomies. The assumption of two and only two categories that neatly apply to all aspects of an individual is reinforced by social, medical, religious and legal systems. A sex/gender label is generally carried throughout a person’s life and any presentation desire to change this or expand its boundaries can come at great personal costs, whether financial, emotional, or social. The information gathered by Trans PULSE challenges this binary and suggests that gender presentation and identity are more complicated with a range of diverse presentations. It also makes clear the need for further education for service providers, educators, and the rest of society.
Our knowledge about who trans people really are is unfortunately still very limited. Many studies have focused on only those who attend certain clinics, or seek out hormone treatment or sex reassignment surgeries.(1,2) More recent studies have tried to capture what trans people “look like” by surveying people in other venues.(3) Trans PULSE has taken a unique snapshot of trans people across Ontario – people with a range of identities, relationships with their bodies, and personal beliefs about the necessity of physical transition. The information we present was collected using a unique research method that would allow us to take the most statistically accurate picture of trans people possible in Ontario.